Title of the article:



Pavel A. Kislyakov

Elena A. Shmeleva

Sergey Ye. Sergeev

Information about the author/authors

Pavel A. Kislyakov — DSc in Psychology, Associate Professor, Russian State Social University, Wilhelm Pieck St., 4, 129226 Moscow, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1238-9183 E-mail: pack.81@mail.ru

Elena A. Shmeleva — DSc in Psychology, Associate Professor, Ivanovo State University, Kooperativnaya St., 24, 155908 Shuya, Ivanovo region, Russia; Ivanovo fire and rescue Academy of the Ministry of emergency situations of Russia, Stroiteley Ave., 33, 153040 Ivanovo; Russian State Social University, Wilhelm Pieck St., 4, 129226 Moscow, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4698-5226 E-mail: noc_shmeleva@mail.ru

Sergey E. Sergeev — Post-graduate Student, Russian State Social University, Wilhelm Pieck St., 4, 129226 Moscow, Russia. E-mail: sergeev.sergey1993@mail.ru


Theory and history of culture




Vol. 63


pp. 126–142


June 04, 2021

Approved after reviewing

November 30, 2021

Date of publication

March 28, 2022



Index UDK


Index BBK

71(2) + 60.524(2)


The study was carried out with financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) and the EIS under the scientific project 21-011-33053.


The issue of understanding socio-cultural challenges and threats to the state, society and the individual requires justification of socially approved, positive value-semantic grounds for maintaining the unity of Russian society. Political philosophy and social evolutionism show that the state and religion may act as institutional regulators of pro-social human behavior. The moral and doctrinal obligations acquired on the basis of religious identity play an important role in the formation of pro-social behavior. Modern research conducted by Western sociologists and social psychologists does not give a clear answer to the issue of the influence of the Christian faith on pro-sociality. Since the second half of 2012, Russia has been developing a new strategy for the development of society, building it on a traditionally conservative basis based on the cultural and Orthodox traditions of charity, mutual assistance and care. Orthodox faith and ecclesiasticism have an impact on the pro-social behavior of Russians. At the same time, our study showed that among Russians there is an ambivalent idea of a pro-socially oriented person in terms of religiosity and traditionalism. The development of ideas and practices of pro-social behavior, voluntary service to the needy finds a significant response in Christianity. The Russian Orthodox Church is rapidly developing both types of various diaconal practices of volunteering and their mass popularization, which indicates a qualitative modification of socio-cultural attitudes in the church and public space: there is a certain shift to institutional trends.


prosocial behavior, social norms, institutionalization, Russian society, state, church, orthodoxy, volunteering.


1 Verit — ne verit: osobennosti rossiiskoi religioznosti [He Believes — he believes not: features of Russian religiosity]. In: Fom.ru. Available at: https://fom.ru/blogs/11820 (accessed 01 July 2020). (In Russian)

2 Vse, chto narushaet prava liudei — nespravedlivo. Prezident obratilsia k Federal'nomu Sobraniiu [Anything that violates people's rights is unfair. The President addressed the Federal Assembly]. In: Rossiiskaia gazeta, 2016, no 273 (7141). Available at: https://rg.ru/2016/12/01/putin-zachital-poslanie-federalnomu-sobraniiu-za-69-minut.html (accessed 20 October 2019). (In Russian)

3 Gubanov N. N., Gubanov N. I. Mental'nye otvety na vozniknovenie riskov v sovremennom obshchestve [Mental responses to the risk occurrence in modern society]. Vestnik slavianskikh kul'tur, 2019, vol. 54, pp. 127–139. (In Russian)

4 Dannye Rossiiskogo sotsial'nogo issledovaniia po programme ESS (Evropeiskogo sotsial'nogo issledovaniia) (8 volna; oktiabr' 2016 g. — ianvar' 2017 g.) [Data from the Russian Social Research program ESS (European Social Research) (Wave 8; October 2016 — January 2017) ]. In: Ess-ru.ru. Available at: http://www.ess-ru.ru (accessed 01 July 2020). (In Russian)

5 Zimin V. A. In nomine Domini. Vospriiatie prosotsial'nogo povedeniia v Rossii: istoricheskii analiz [In nomine Domini. Perception of Pro-social behavior in Russia: historical analysis]. Psikhologiia, sotsiologiia i pedagogika, 2013, no 4 (19), p. 3. (In Russian)

6 Il'in E. P. Psikhologiia pomoshchi. Al'truizm, egoizm, empatiia [Psychology of help. Altruism, selfishness, empathy]. St. Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2013. 304 p. (In Russian)

7 Kak organizovat' sluzhbu dobrovol'tsev: uchebnik dlia nachinaiushchikh [How to organize volunteer service: textbook for beginners], edited by I. Karpova, E. Matsan, E. Savost'ianova. Moscow, Lepta Kniga Publ., 2018. 336 p. (In Russian)

8 Kisliakov P. A., Shmeleva E. A., Govin O. Sovremennoe volonterstvo v vospitanii prosotsial'nogo povedeniia lichnosti [Contemporary Volunteering in the Formation of Pro-social Behaviour of a Person]. Obrazovanie i nauka, 2019, vol. 21, no 6, pp. 122–146. (In Russian)

9 Kovaleva Iu. V. Tipy prosotsial'nogo povedeniia studentov azerbaidzhanskogo, belorusskogo i russkogo etnosov vo vzaimosviazi s individual'nymi tsennostiami [Types of pro-social behavior of students of Azerbaijan, Belarusian and Russian ethnic groups in conjunction with individual values]. In: Teoreticheskie problemy etnicheskoi i krosskul'turnoi psikhologii: materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii: v 2 t. [Theoretical problems of ethnic and cross-cultural psychology: materials of the international scientific conference: in 2 vols.]. Smolensk, Izdatel'stvo SmolGU Publ., 2016, vol. 1, pp. 234–238. (In Russian)

10 Loginova E. V. Prosotsial'noe povedenie: filosofskii podkhod [Pro-social behavior: philosophical approach]. Kontentus, 2015, no 8 (37), pp. 71–75. (In Russian)

11 Malevich T. V. Evoliutsionnoe znachenie religii: mezhdu adaptatsiei i pobochnym produktom [The Evolutionary significance of religion: between adaptation and by-product]. Vestnik PSTGU, Seriia 1: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia [Series 1: Theology. Philosophy], 2016, no 4 (66), pp. 84–104. (In Russian)

12 Malianov D. Ateist chelovechnei veruiushchego [Humane atheist believer]. In: Atheism.ru. Available at: http://www.atheism.ru/library/mal_1.phtml (accessed 01 April 2020). (In Russian)

13 Nazmutdinov R. A. Vliianie tsennostno-potrebnostnoi sfery lichnosti na ee oslozhnennye formy povedeniia [The influence of values and requirement of the individual sphere in its complicated forms of behavior: PhD thesis]. Novosibirsk, 2003. 214 p. (In Russian)

14 Poliakova O. O. Osobennosti prosotsial'nogo povedeniia studentov s razlichnym urovnem razvitiia empatii [Features of Pro-social behavior of students with different levels of empathy]. Ogarev-Onlain, 2014, no 1. Available at: http://journal.mrsu.ru/arts/osobennosti-prosocialnogo-povedeniya-studentov-s-razlichnym-urovnem-razvitiya-ehmpatii (accessed 08 July 2020). (In Russian)

15 Rogach O. V., Frolova E. V. Kul'turnoe volonterstvo v Rossii kak sotsial'nyi resurs razvitiia turizma [Cultural Volunteership in Russia as a Social Resource for Development of Tourism]. Sotsial'naia politika i sotsiologiia, 2019, no 1 (130), pp. 140–146. (In Russian)

16 Svod nravstvennykh printsipov i pravil v khoziaistvovanii (Priniato na itogovom plenarnom zasedanii VIII Vsemirnogo Russkogo Narodnogo Sobora) [The code of moral principles and rules in economic management (Adopted at the final plenary session of the VIII world Russian People's Council) ]. In: Mospat.ru. Available at: https://mospat.ru/archive/2004/02/6353/ (accessed 09 May 2020). (In Russian)

17 Sviateishii Patriarkh Kirill: dela miloserdiia — naibolee perspektivnoe napravlenie dlia dobrovol'chestva [Patriarch Kirill: acts of mercy are the most promising direction for volunteering]. In: Diaconia.ru. Available at: http://www.diaconia.ru/svyatejshij-patriarkh-kirill-dela-miloserdiya-naibolee-perspektivnoe-napravlenie-dlya-dobrovolchestva (accessed 01 March 2020). (In Russian)

18 Sobolev S. I. K probleme prosotsial'nogo povedeniia v zapadnoi filosofskoi mysli [On pro-social behavior in western philosophical thought]. SWORLD, 2013, no 3, pp. 38–41. (In Russian)

19 Soldatova G. U., Nestik T. A. Istoriko-evoliutsionnaia perspektiva chelovechestva: ot paradigmy konflikta k paradigme tolerantnosti [Historical and evolutionary perspective of humanity: from the paradigm of conflict to the paradigm of tolerance]. Natsional'nyi psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2011, no 2 (6), pp. 15–24. (In Russian)

20 Strategiia razvitiia vospitaniia v Rossiiskoi Federatsii na period do 2025 goda (Utv. rasporiazheniem Pravitel'stva RF ot 29.05.2015 g. № 996-r) [Strategy for the development of education in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 (Approved by Order of the Government of the Russian Federation no. 996-r of 29.05.2015) ]. In: Rossiiskaia gazeta, 2015, no 122 (6693). Available at: https://rg.ru/2015/06/08/vospitanie-dok.html (accessed 20 October 2019). (In Russian)

21 Tarasova L. N. Rol' empatii v motivatsii prosotsial'nogo povedeniia [The role of empathy in the motivation of pro-social behavior]. In: Lichnost', sem'ia i obshchestvo: voprosy pedagogiki i psikhologii: sbornik statei po materialam XXXIII Mezhdunarodnaia nauchno-prakticheskaia konferentsiia (g. Novosibirsk, 16 oktiabria 2013 g.) [Personality, family and society: issues of pedagogy and psychology: a collection of articles based on the proceedings of the XXXIII International Scientific and Practical Conference (Novosibirsk, October 16, 2013) ]. Novosibirsk, Izdatel'stvo SibAK Publ., 2013, pp. 85–88. (In Russian)

22 Unrau V. A. Ne Evangelie [Not The Gospel]. Lipetsk, Orius Publ., 2010. 120 p. (In Russian)

23 Shamionov R. M. Psikhologiia sotsial'nogo povedeniia lichnosti [Psychology of social behavior of personality]. Saratov, Izdatel'skii tsentr “Nauka” Publ., 2009. 185 p. (In Russian)

24 Shveitser A. Kul'tura i etika [Culture and ethics]. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1973. 343 p. (In Russian)

25 Barry C. M., Prenoveau J. M., Morgan C. H. Do Emerging Adults Learn What They Live? The Frequency and Importance of Childhood Family Faith Activities on Emerging Adults' Prosocial Behavior Toward Family, Friends, and Strangers. Emerging Adulthood, 2018, no 6 (6), pp. 411–421. (In English)

26 Beck U., Willms J. Conversations with Ulrich Beck. Cambridge, Polity Press, 2003. 240 p. (In English)

27 Bonner K., Koven L. P., Patrick J. H. Effects of religiosity and spirituality on depressive symptoms and prosocial behaviors. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 2003, no 14 (2–3), pp. 189–205. (In English)

28 Cappellen V. P., Saroglou V., Toth-Gauthier M. Religiosity and Prosocial Behavior Among Churchgoers: Exploring Underlying Mechanisms. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2016, no 26 (1), pp. 19–30. (In English)

29 Crosby R. G., Smith E. I. Church Support as a Predictor of Children's Spirituality and Prosocial Behavior. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 2015, no 43 (4), pp. 243–254. (In English)

30 Dickerson P. Social psychology: traditional and critical perspectives. New York, Pearson Education, 2012. 468 p. (In English)

31 Einolf C. J. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior. Social Indicators Research, 2013, no 110 (1), pp. 71–87. (In English)

32 Greenway T. S. A Review of Theories Accounting for the Relationship Between Intercessory Prayer and Prosocial Behavior: Current Research and Future Directions. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Available at: https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Frel0000209 (accessed 09 March 2020). (In English)

33 Guo Q., Liu Z., Tian Q. Religiosity and Prosocial Behavior at National Level. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Available at: https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Frel0000171 (accessed 04 April 2020). (In English)

34 Hardy S. A., Carlo G. Religiosity and prosocial behaviours in adolescence: the mediating role of prosocial values. Journal of Moral Education, 2018, no 34 (2), pp. 231–249. (In English)

35 Kislyakov P. A., Shmeleva E. A., Sergeev S. E., Kulikov S. B. Social justice based on religious forms of prosociality in Russia. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 2020, vol. 9, pp. 63–73. (In English)

36 McKay R., Herold J., Whitehouse H. Catholic guilt? Recall of confession promotes prosocial behavior. Religion, Brain and Behavior, 2013, no 3 (3), pp. 201–209. (In English)

37 Norenzayan A., Shariff A. The Origin and Evolution of Religious Prosociality. Science, 2008, no 322 (58), pp. 58–62. (In English)

38 Oviedo L. Religious attitudes and prosocial behavior: a systematic review of published research. Religion Brain & Behavior, 2016, no 6 (2), pp. 169–184. (In English)

39 Saroglou V., Pichon I., Trompette L., Verschueren M., Dernelle R. Prosocial behavior and religion: New evidence based on projective measures and peer ratings. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2005, no 44 (3), pp. 323–348. (In English)

40 Saslow L. R., Willer R., Feinberg M., Piff P. K., Clark K., Keltner D., Saturn S. R. My Brother’s Keeper? Compassion Predicts Generosity More Among Less Religious Individuals. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2013, no 4 (1), pp. 31–38. (In English)

41 Sperber D. Explaining Culture: A Naturalistic Approach. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Publ., 1996. 175 p. (In English)

42 Stavrova O., Siegers P. Religious Prosociality and Morality Across Cultures: How Social Enforcement of Religion Shapes the Effects of Personal Religiosity on Prosocial and Moral Attitudes and Behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2014, no 40 (3), pp. 315–333. (In English)

43 World Values Survey: Round Six — Country-Pooled (2014), edited by Inglehart R., Haerpfer C., Moreno A., Welzel C., Kizilova K., Diez-Medrano J., Lagos M., Norris P., Ponarin E., Puranen B. et al. Available at: https://worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSDocumentationWV6.jsp (accessed 01 April 2020). (In English)