Title of the article:



Olga A. Tufanova

Information about the author/authors

Olga A. Tufanova — PhD in Philology, A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Povarskaya 25 а, 121069 Moscow, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2254-7969. E-mail: tufoa@mail.ru


Philological sciences




Vol. 56


pp. 89–100


December 12, 2019

Date of publication

June 28, 2020



Index UDK


Index BBK



Many of protopope Avvakum`s works are imbued with deep, sincere love for his children. According to protopope, the child`s birth in family is a great joy, while the death of young babies — is a greatest grief for parents. Not coincidentally Avvakum used to think back on the death of his two little sons. Insightful stories about this sad event in his “Life” and petitions to the tzar Alexey Mikhaylovich are imparted with implicit emotionality. Avvakum repeatedly notices that children died “in misery” which conceals rueful feelings of a father, first witnessing sufferings of his babies from starvation and then their death. Motif of love, not acting as a central neither in petitions nor in the correspondence with family or in “Life”, finds different ways of expression. Along with traditional means of emotional expression Avvakum`s works draw heavily upon the poetry of fact. His children`s destiny is connected with protopope`s struggle for Old belief and hence the narrative is charged with anguish. One of the most striking and contradictory episodes from the “Life” is a story of how his sons were near to death by hanging. As a preacher, through many works the protopope continuously encourages his children to be patient in adversities; as a father he feels pity for them, for their physical and moral sufferings and broken lives. His lifelong love for children shone in his works with heartfelt tenderness and paternal worry.


devotion for children, encouragement in adversities, emotional expressivity, poetry of fact, protopope as preacher and father.


1 Gusev V. E. Velikii pisatel' drevnei Rusi [The great writer of Ancient Rus`]. In: Zhitie protopopa Avvakuma, im samim napisannoe, i drugie ego sochineniia [The Life of the Protopope Avvakum, written by himself, and his other writings]. Irkutsk, Vostochno-Sibirskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1979, pp. 236–263. (In Russian)

2 Gusev V. E. “Zhitie” protopopa Avvakuma — proizvedenie demokraticheskoi literatury XVII v. (postanovka voprosa) [“Life” of Protopope Avvakum — a work of democratic literature of the 17th century (statement of the question) ]. In: Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoi literatury [Proceedings of the Department of Old Russian Literature]. Moscow, Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR Publ., 1958, vol. XIV, pp. 380–385. (In Russian)

3 Gusev V. E. Protopop Avvakum — vydaiushchiisia russkii pisatel' [Protopope Avvakum — an outstanding Russian writer]. In: Zhitie protopopa Avvakuma, im samim napisannoe, i drugie ego proizvedeniia [The Life of Protopop Avvakum, written by himself, and his other works], editor by N. K. Gudzii. Moscow, Goslitizdat Publ., 1960, pp. 5–51. (In Russian)

4 Demin A. S. Russkaia literatura vtoroi poloviny XVII – nachala XVIII veka [Russian literature of the second half of the 17th – beginning of the 18th century]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1977. 296 p. (In Russian)

5 Demkova N. S. Zhitie protopopa Avvakuma (tvorcheskaia istoriia proizvedeniia) [Life of the Protopope Avvakum (creative history of the work) ]. Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Leningradskogo universiteta Publ., 1974. 168 p. (In Russian)

6 Demkova N. S. Malyshev V. I. Neizvestnye pis'ma protopopa Avvakuma [Unknown letters of the Protopope Avvakum]. In: Zapiski otdela rukopisei GBL [Notes of the manuscript department of the Lenin State Library]. Moscow, Kniga, 1971. Issue 32. Available at: http://az.lib.ru/a/awwakum/text_1971_neizvestnye_pisma_avvakuma.shtml (Accessed 31 March 2020). (In Russian)

7 Eleonskaia A. S. Avvakum-oblichitel' i satirik [Avvakum — the accuser and satirist]. In: Teoriia i istoriia russkoi literatury / Uchen. zap. MGPI im. V. I. Lenina [Theory and History of Russian Literature / Scientific notes MGPI by V. I. Lenin]. Moscow, 1963, no 190, pp. 17–34. (In Russian)

8 Zhitie protopopa Avvakuma, im samim napisannoe, i drugie ego sochineniia [The Life of Protopope Avvakum, written by himself, and his other works], editor by N. K. Gudzii. Irkutsk, Vostochno-Sibirskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1979. 368 p. (In Russian)

9 Zaretskii Iu. P. Avtobiografiia i pravda: Avvakum Petrovich o Nastas'e Markovne [Autobiography and Truth: Avvakum Petrovich about Nastasya Markovna]. AvtobiografiIa: Journal on Life Writing and the Representation of the Self in Russian Culture, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 13–23. (In Russian)

10 Klibanov A. I. Opyt religiovedcheskogo prochteniia sochinenii Avvakuma [Experience of theological reading of Avvakum`s works]. In: Traditsionnaia dukhovnaia i material'naia kul'tura russkikh staroobriadcheskikh poselenii v stranakh Evropy, Azii i Amerike [Traditional spiritual and material culture of Russian Old Believer settlements in Europe, Asia and America]. Novosibirsk, Nauka, Sib. otd-nie Publ., 1992, pp. 33–40. (In Russian)

11 Kuskov V. V. Istoriia drevnerusskoi literatury [History of Old Russian Literature]. Moscow, Vysshaia shkola Publ., 1989, pp. 260–268. (In Russian)

12 Likhachev D. S. Iumor protopopa Avvakuma [Humor of Protopop Avvakum]. In: Likhachev D. S., Panchenko A. M. “Smekhovoi mir” Drevnei Rusi [“The Laughter World” of Ancient Russia]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1976, pp. 75–90. (In Russian)

13 Miakotin V. A. Protopop Avvakum. Ego zhizn' i deiatel'nost' [Protopop Avvakum. His life and work]. Moscow, Zakharov Publ., 2002. 198 p. (In Russian)

14 Pamiatniki istorii staroobriadchestva XVII v. [Monuments of the history of the Old Believers of the 17th century], editor by V. G. Druzhinin. Leningrad, Akademii nauk SSSR Publ., 1927. Book 1, issue 1. XCVII p., 960 columns. (Russkaia istoricheskaia biblioteka [Russian Historical Library]. Vol. 39). (In Russian)

15 Panchenko A. M. Tvorchestvo protopopa Avvakuma [Works of Protopope Avvakum]. In: Istoriia russkoi literatury XI–XVII vekov [History of Russian Literature of the 11th – 17th Centuries], editor by D. S. Likhacheva. Moscow, Prosveshchenie Publ., 1985, pp. 375–383. (In Russian)

16 Tufanova O. A. Tvorchestvo Avvakuma: poetika tragicheskogo [Works of Protopope Avvacum: The Poetics of the Tragic]. Moscow, Kompaniia Sputnik+ Publ., 2007. 144 p. (In Russian)

17 Khlistunova N. V. Rol' sem'i v pedagogicheskikh vozzreniiakh protopopa Avvakuma [The role of family in the pedagogical views of Protopope Avvakum]. Izvestiia RGPU im. A. I. Gertsena, 2007, vol. 17, no 43-2, pp. 235–238. (In Russian)